A solid understanding of the history of the mortgage industry is crucial in contextualizing the financial crisis of 2008. An analysis of the practices and scope of operations of one of the largest players in the mortgage industry, Countrywide Financial, can shed further light on the events leading up to 2008. To help achieve this, Porter’s Five Forces Model will also be used. Upon drawing a conclusion as to the causes of the financial crises, the Political, Economic, Social and Technological Impacts on the financial industry will be evaluated. Lastly, a set of recommendations will be made to companies like Bank of America to ensure long-term financial prosperity for all parties involved.


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Subprime Mortgage Paper








A consideration of Porter’s 5 Forces analysis model can provide some insight into the micro-environmental factors impacting APPLE.



A Formula for Customer Growth

Each New Apple Product is innovative and has a high value proposition. These are core competencies of Apple that align perfectly  with what customers value. As a result, Customers are Overwhelmingly Satisfied, because their expectations have been met or surpassed. This causes an attachment to the brand and ultimately, Customer Loyalty.

This now means that there is a higher likelihood of Purchasing Future Apple Products, each time something new is released.

In short, each time a customer goes through this loop, customer satisfaction and loyalty is further enhanced.

See Diagram Below:

There are 5 main Uniqueness Drivers that helps Apple maintain its Competitive Advantage.



  •   One of the most   innovative and transformational pioneers of all time- Steve Jobs. A true   visionary- Planted the seeds that made Apple who it is today; iPod, iPhone,   Tablet;
  •   Highly   protected IP: Harmonization of hardware and software products
  •   Distinctive  competencies in innovation, quality, ease   of use, style
  •   82 billion in   cash reserves enables them to lock in supplies and carry no debt.
  •   Rapid growth in   demand for Apple products
  •    Product launches create immense brand exposure   and hype.
  •   Loyal customer   base
  •   Made shopping   for electronics an experience



  •   Customer demand   at times exceeds supply of products
  •   Some Apple   stores struggle to keep up with influx of customers



  •    Opportunities to expand to emerging markets   and push sales of Mac’s and iPhones
  •   Opportunity to   Expand the Apple TV segment


  •   Other well   established competitors in each of their segments are quick to follow Apple’s   innovation
  •   Competing   operating systems
  •   Intense   competition for ad revenue, Apple’s app advertising platform; iAd competes   with Google’s AdSense
  •   Battle for   patents and lawsuits creates negative publicity and affects the share price
  •   Replica Apple   store in China


As we proceed with our own lives, let us remember the inspirational people like Steve Job’s, who has motivated us to explore the vast potential within each one of us.

He has undoubtedly left a mark on this world, and hopefully his words can leave a mark on you.

“We’re here to make a dent in the universe. Otherwise, why even be here?” (Qtd in the movie Pirates of Silicon Valley)


“Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life.” (2005 commencement speech)


“Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.”


“Don’t be trapped by dogma, which is living with the consequences of other peoples thinking” (2005 commencement speech)

There was also an arrogant side to Steve.

To Bill Gates: “We’re better than you are! We have better stuff.” (Qtd in the movie Pirates of Silicon Valley)

However, this side of him was overshadowed by pure brilliance.

STEVE JOBS, (1955 – 2011)